Against whaling essay example

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Against whaling essay example

Editor, Creation magazine Probably the most well known case of atavism is found in the whales. According to the standard phylogenetic tree, whales are known to be the descendants of terrestrial mammals that had hindlimbs.

Thus, we expect the possibility that rare mutant whales might occasionally develop atavistic hindlimbs. In fact, there are many cases where whales have been found with rudimentary atavistic hindlimbs in the wild see Figure 2.

Hindlimbs have been found in baleen whales Sleptsovhumpback whales Andrews and in many specimens of sperm whales Abel ; Berzinp. Most of these examples are of whales with femurs, tibia, and fibulae; however, some even include feet with complete digits.

For example, Figure 2.

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These bones are the remnants of one of two symmetrical hind-limbs found protruding from the ventral side of a female humpback whale, captured by a whaling ship from the Kyuquot Station near the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, in July Two officials of the Consolidated Whaling Company were understandably impressed by this discovery, and they removed one of the legs and presented the skeletal remains to the Provincial Museum in Victoria, B.

The other leg was evidently taken as a "souvenir" by crew members of the whaling ship. Andrews reported the findings, along with photographs of the whale from the whaling crew, in American Museum Novitates, the journal of the AMNH. Andrews identified in the remains a shrunken cartiliginous femur, tibia, tarsus, and metatarsal.

Both legs initially were over four feet long and covered in normal blubber and skin. For comparison, an average adult female humpback is around 45 feet long. The femur, composed of unossified cartilage, had shrunken from 15 inches to 4. When attached to the whale, the femur was completely inside the body cavity and attached to the pelvic rudiments humpback whales have vestiges of a pelvis inside the abdominal wall.

This extraordinary finding is unlikely to be repeated, as the International Whaling Commission gave humpback whales worldwide protection status inafter sixty years of uncontrolled human predation had decimated the population.

The hind-flippers of a bottlenose dolphin found in Japanese coastal waters. Yellow arrows indicate the location of a well-formed atavistic set of hind limbs.

Against whaling essay example

Images modified from publicity photos from the Taiji Whaling Museum. On October 28,Japanese fishermen captured a four-finned dolphin off the coast of western Japan, and donated the whale to the Taiji Whaling Museum where it is currently being studied.

This bottlenose dolphin has an extra set of hindlimbs, two well-formed palm-sized flippers that move and flap like the normal fore-flippers see Figure 2. As with other atavistic structures, these limbs are likely the result of a rare mutation that allows an underlying, yet cryptic, developmental pathway to become reactivated.

Newborn babies born with tails Primarily due to intense medical interest, humans are one of the best characterized species and many developmental anomalies are known. There are several human atavisms that reflect our common genetic heritage with other mammals.

One of the most striking is the existence of the rare "true human tail" also variously known as "coccygeal process", "coccygeal projection", "caudal appendage", and "vestigial tail".

Acculturation and Assimilation

More than cases of human tails have been reported in the medical literature. Less than one third of the well-documented cases are what are medically known as "pseudo-tails" Dao and Netsky ; Dubrow et al.

Pseudo-tails are not true tails; they are simply lesions of various types coincidentally found in the caudal region of newborns, often associated with the spinal column, coccyx, and various malformations.

In contrast, the true atavistic tail of humans results from incomplete regression of the most distal end of the normal embryonic tail found in the developing human fetus see Figure 2.

Though formally a malformation, the true human tail is usually benign in nature Dubrow et al. The true human tail is characterized by a complex arrangement of adipose and connective tissue, central bundles of longitudinally arranged striated muscle in the core, blood vessels, nerve fibres, nerve ganglion cells, and specialized pressure sensing nerve organs Vater-Pacini corpuscles.

Against whaling essay example

It is covered by normal skin, replete with hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands Dao and Netsky ; Dubrow et al. True human tails range in length from about one inch to over 5 inches long on a newborn babyand they can move via voluntary striped muscle contractions in response to various emotional states Baruchin et al.

Although human tails usually lack skeletal structures some medical articles have claimed that true tails never have vertebraeseveral human tails have also been found with cartilage and up to five, well-developed, articulating vertebrae see Figure 2.Free greenpeace papers, essays, and research papers.

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